Cambridge University Press, pp. Smart32; Feldman17— This position is often described as satisficing consequentialism Slote Since it does not seem irrational to refuse to hook oneself up to this machine, hedonism seems inadequate.
A key move here is to adopt the agent's perspective in judging the agent's act.
Other rule utilitarians, however, require that moral rules be publicly known Gert ; cf. These points against hedonism are often supplemented with the story of the experience machine found in Nozick42—45; cf.
Or one could give up aggregation altogether and just rank total sets of consequences or total worlds created by acts without breaking those worlds down into valuable parts.
I might Consequentialist vs nonconsequentialist to drink the liquid in a glass because I think that it is beer, though it really is strong acid.
Alice wants to help and reasonably believes that buying a bus ticket home for this runaway will help, so she buys a bus ticket and puts the runaway on the bus. John Rawlsa critic of utilitarianism, argues that utilitarianism, in common with other forms of consequentialism, relies on the perspective of such an ideal observer.
Similarly, some consequentialists hold that an act is right if and only if it maximizes some function of both happiness and capabilities SenNussbaum For predecessors, see Schneewind Unforeseeably, when she opens my present, the decorative pattern on the knives somehow reminds her of something horrible that her husband did.
Another indirect version is virtue consequentialism, which holds that whether an act is morally right depends on whether it stems from or expresses a state of character that maximizes good consequences and, hence, is a virtue. However, most classic and contemporary utilitarians and consequentialists do not propose their principles as decision procedures.
Varieties of consequentialism can be differentiated by the beneficiary of the good consequences. Just suppose that the five patients need a kidney, a lung, a heart, and so forth because they were all victims of murder attempts.
Early on, Sidgwickresponded to such objections by allowing distribution to break ties between other values. Consequentialism Consequentialists state that maximum happiness achieved is what is good; the actions that maximize this good are right.
Mill used a different strategy to avoid calling push-pin as good as poetry. Stronger versions of negative consequentialism will require active intervention to prevent bad and ameliorate existing harm.
An example of this is the Slippery Slope Argument, which encourages others to avoid a specified act on the grounds that it may ultimately lead to undesirable consequences.
In other words, if you want to find out what you ought to do, it is essential to understand what the ultimate goal of ethics is.
Consequentialism could then remain a live option even if it is not proven. This contrasts with the "acts and omissions doctrine", which is upheld by some medical ethicists and some religions: However, most people begin with the presumption that we morally ought to make the world better when we can.
In this case, even if the doctor can disvalue killings by herself more than killings by other people, the world still seems better from her own perspective if she performs the transplant. According to utilitarianisma good action is one that results in an increase in pleasureand the best action is one that results in the most pleasure for the greatest number.
Unfortunately, negative utilitarianism also seems to imply that the government should painlessly kill everyone it can, since dead people feel no pain and have no false beliefs, diseases, or disabilities — though killing them does cause loss of ability cf.
Good points of act consequentialism A flexible system Act consequentialism is flexible and can take account of any set of circumstances, however exceptional. According to utilitarianisma good action is one that results in an increase in pleasureand the best action is one that results in the most pleasure for the greatest number.
Each objection led some utilitarians to give up some of the original claims of classic utilitarianism. The rules that should be adopted are the rules that would produce the best results if they were adopted by most people. Consequentialist theories that adopt this paradigm hold that right action is the action that will bring about the best consequences from this ideal observer's perspective.
A final challenge to consequentialists' accounts of value derives from Geach and has been pressed recently by Thomson Since a rule is an abstract entity, a rule by itself strictly has no consequences. On this view, it is senseless to call something good unless this means that it is good for someone or in some respect or for some use or at some activity or as an instance of some kind.
Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct.
Thus, from a consequentialist standpoint, a morally right act (or omission from acting) is one that will produce a good outcome, or consequence. Consequentialist and non-consequentialist ethics are both centered around the idea of judging actions.
But, there are other approaches to morality as well. Virtue ethics examines moral character. Consequentialist vs.
non-consequentialist theories of ethics There are two broad categories of ethical theories concerning the source of value: consequentialist and non-consequentialist. A consequentialist theory of value judges the rightness or wrongness of an action based on. Consequentialism and Nonconsequentialism DPA Ethics & Social Responsibility Dr.
Robert Wright November 11, Prudence Conner Consequentialism vs. Non consequentialism theories of ethics A consequentialist theory judges the rightness or wrongness of an action based on the consequences that action has (Marietta, ).
Apr 10, · This video quickly goes over the difference between Consequentialism vs. Non-Consequentialism using the Rubber Gloves Rehearsal studio scandal as an example.
Jan 29, · Ethical theories can be categorized as consequentialism, non-consequentialism, and age centered theories. Consequentialism theories focus on the consequences of the ethical decisions made while non-consequentialism theories focus on the intentions that drive specific ethical choices on particular situations.Consequentialist vs nonconsequentialist